The Fall of Dhaka

March 1969 General Yehya Khan was handed over government by Field Marshal Ayub Khan .
Ayub Khan had to resign under pressure from Zulfiqar Bhutto.

Yehya Khan announced he will hold General elections to resolve political turmoil between Zulfiqar Bhutto of West Pakistan and those of East Pakistan, specially Sheikh Mujeeb.
Elections were planned for mid 1970,but East Pakistan suffered massive floods in August 1970 and elections delayed.
Again in November 1970 East Pakistan got hit by record breaking Bhola cyclone.
Yehya Khan calls international assistance due to scale of disaster.
Aid comes in from all over the world. Pakistani troops were deployed for disaster relief but 40% of East Pakistan was submerged for three days at least and infra structure was destroyed.
Far flung areas were very hard to reach.
Both Mujeeb and Bhutto pressed on for elections despite humanitarian catastrophe in east Pakistan. Troops had to be re-assigned to arrange for general elections, leaving disaster relief efforts.
Less than a month later on 7th December 1970 General elections were held in East and West Pakistan.
Sheikh Mujeeb’s Awami League won 161 seats out of 300 and Zulfuwar Bhutto’s people party won 81 .
Sheikh Mujeeb wanted to be the PM of Pakistan due to having majority seats, but Zulfiqar Bhutto refused and instead offered him a lose federation of Bangladesh and West Pakistan in which both sides keep their tax and export revenues. Only sharing defense costs and West Pakistan responsible for defense and foreign policy for both sides.
Mujeeb agreed on these terms.
Mujeeb did not want a total freedom as he knew a lonely Bangladesh will be too weak to fend off Indian influence.
In February 1971 a non cooperation movement started in East Pakistan due to lack of political process between two sides. Yehya was pressing for united Pakistan , Bhutto for lose federation.
In March 1971 Yehya went to Dhaka for negotiations with Sheikh Mujeeb and also made Bhutto to go with him.
Zulfiqar Bhutto and Sheikh Mujeeb held several rounds of talks in Dhaka but failed to reach an agreement.
By now Yehya Khan had lost interest and in an interview with BBC said he does not want to be the president anymore.
By the end of March Sheikh Mujeeb was arrested by west Pakistani forces and taken to Mianwali prison as intelligence reports suggested his life was under threat from political rivals.
Soon after Mujeeb’s arrest, a Bengali army Major Zia Ur Rehman with some armed men took over Chittagong radio station on 26th March 1971 and declared Bangladesh as an independent state.
Hearing the declaration of independence police and paramilitary of East Pakistan revolted and joined the armed rebellion called Mukti Bahini.
Mujeeb was in Mianwali unaware of the turn of events.
Pakistan army had to launch full blown armed offensive against Bengali rebellion on same date, called operation searchlight.
The psychological and propaganda warfare campaign was being run by India under instructions from Soviet KGB. Pictures of Bhola cyclone casualties were being shown to people as mass murders of Bengalis committed by Pakistan army, infuriating the Bengalis.
All pictures showed dead bodies without any bullet wounds lining up a canal or river or muddy ground. Conditions consistent with hypothermia or drowning deaths as a result of flooding. But people did not realize that and believed the alleged pictures of “Bengali genocide”.
By October 1971 armed rebellion was nearly crushed and banished to Northern forests.
Looking at the situation India intervened.
In November 1971 air raids started and on 3rd of December 1971 Indian army alongside Bengali armed rebels, launched a total military intervention.
By that time Yehya had gone docile and Bhutto had the political dominance. No interest or support was shown by government of west Pakistan under Bhutto for supporting troops fighting a war in east Pakistan. Instead Bhutto was busy sacking Generals.
By 16th of December just 13 days later ,General Niazi the commander of Pakistan army in east Pakistan realised it’s a lost cause and they are on their own. He made a deal with Indian army chief for ending the war siting very large loss of civilian lives and political resolution expected.For Pakistan army it was an all consuming war they had been fighting since March.
Pakistan army surrendered as exit strategy and left east Pakistan.
A week later on 24th of December 1971 Yehya Khan officially resigned and transferred powers to Bhutto.
Zulfiqar Bhutto held a press conference on 24th December and while condemning Pakistan army, also asked them to stay in East Pakistan while he thinks of political solution, something he had been saying since 1967.
Sheikh mujeeb was told about Surrender of Pakistan army and Bangladesh becoming a new country. He offered to go on radio and TV, address Bangladeshi people and stop total separation of East Pakistan . Bhutto disagreed. Mujeeb insisted as he still hoped to rule both sides for being majority vote winner in the election. Something Bhutto didn’t want to happen.
In January 1972 Bhutto made some kind of deal with India, details of which are unknown to this date.
Under the deal Sheikh Mujeeb was released from Mianwali prison. Sent to Delhi on special plane where he delivered his first victory speech shouting “Joy Bangla , Joy Hind”.
He then went to Dhaka and under guard of Indian army , was installed as the head of state of new country Bangladesh.
The unfinished disaster relief operation after November 1970 Bhola cyclone came back to bite Bangladesh, compounded by lack of interest from India, the country had severest food shortage resulting a famine lasting two years and killing millions.
At the same time the Mukti Bahini armed to fight Pakistan army, refused to lay down weapons and kept killing any resident of new Bangladesh whom they suspected had opposed Bangladesh freedom or in any way had links or sympathy for west Pakistan.
The most horrific tortures were committed by the armed and unruly teenagers who knew no rules of engagement, human rights or Geneva convention. Dhaka stadium held daily torture gamed in which people picked up by Mukti Bahini were slowly and brutally killed in front of cheering crowds.
Political grudge between Zia ur Rehman and Sheikh Mujeeb remained an underlying issue. Sheikh Mujeeb generally called father of Nation but Zia ur Rehman still being the man who actually announced freedom and started armed rebellion.
In June 1974 Bhutto went on a state visit to Bangladesh. Mujeeb and Bhutto hugged each other as old friends . Both seemingly happy to have a separate country of their own to rule.
On 15th August 1975 Sheikh Mujeeb and most of his family were killed by armed men, suspected to be rebellious army soldiers under instructions of Zia Ur Rehman.
Bangladesh fell into total chaos after Mujeeb Assassination. In 1977 Zia Ur Rehman took power and started restoring order. In 1981 he allowed the return of exiled daughter of Sheikh Mujeeb, Sheikh Hasena.
The same year President Zia Ur Rehman was assassinated under dubious circumstances.
Zulfiqar Bhutto was hanged in April 1979 after General Zia’s military coup . Retired General Yehya Khan Died same year as Zia ur Rehman, in August 1981 , Rawalpindi. The ruler of India in 1971 who conspired to break Pakistan and arranged Indian military attack on Pakistan, Indra Gandhi also got assassinated by her own bodyguards in October1984.
Yehya khan became the only ruler involved in the east Pakistan to Bangladesh story who died a natural death.
During soviet Afghan war Pakistani secret services got the opportunity of giving Soviets a taste of their own medicine and the opportunity was availed.March 1969 General Yehya Khan was handed over government by Field Marshal Ayub Khan .
Ayub Khan had to resign under pressure from Zulfiqar Bhutto.
Yehya Khan announced he will hold General elections to resolve political turmoil between Zulfiqar Bhutto of West Pakistan and those of East Pakistan, specially Sheikh Mujeeb.
Elections were planned for mid 1970,but East Pakistan suffered massive floods in August 1970 and elections delayed.
Again in November 1970 East Pakistan got hit by record breaking Bhola cyclone.
Yehya Khan calls international assistance due to scale of disaster.
Aid comes in from all over the world. Pakistani troops were deployed for disaster relief but 40% of East Pakistan was submerged for three days at least and infra structure was destroyed.
Far flung areas were very hard to reach.
Both Mujeeb and Bhutto pressed on for elections despite humanitarian catastrophe in east Pakistan. Troops had to be re-assigned to arrange for general elections, leaving disaster relief efforts.
Less than a month later on 7th December 1970 General elections were held in East and West Pakistan.
Sheikh Mujeeb’s Awami League won 161 seats out of 300 and Zulfuwar Bhutto’s people party won 81 .
Sheikh Mujeeb wanted to be the PM of Pakistan due to having majority seats, but Zulfiqar Bhutto refused and instead offered him a lose federation of Bangladesh and West Pakistan in which both sides keep their tax and export revenues. Only sharing defense costs and West Pakistan responsible for defense and foreign policy for both sides.
Mujeeb agreed on these terms.
Mujeeb did not want a total freedom as he knew a lonely Bangladesh will be too weak to fend off Indian influence.
In February 1971 a non cooperation movement started in East Pakistan due to lack of political process between two sides. Yehya was pressing for united Pakistan , Bhutto for lose federation.
In March 1971 Yehya went to Dhaka for negotiations with Sheikh Mujeeb and also made Bhutto to go with him.
Zulfiqar Bhutto and Sheikh Mujeeb held several rounds of talks in Dhaka but failed to reach an agreement.
By now Yehya Khan had lost interest and in an interview with BBC said he does not want to be the president anymore.
By the end of March Sheikh Mujeeb was arrested by west Pakistani forces and taken to Mianwali prison as intelligence reports suggested his life was under threat from political rivals.
Soon after Mujeeb’s arrest, a Bengali army Major Zia Ur Rehman with some armed men took over Chittagong radio station on 26th March 1971 and declared Bangladesh as an independent state.
Hearing the declaration of independence police and paramilitary of East Pakistan revolted and joined the armed rebellion called Mukti Bahini.
Mujeeb was in Mianwali unaware of the turn of events.
Pakistan army had to launch full blown armed offensive against Bengali rebellion on same date, called operation searchlight.
The psychological and propaganda warfare campaign was being run by India under instructions from Soviet KGB. Pictures of Bhola cyclone casualties were being shown to people as mass murders of Bengalis committed by Pakistan army, infuriating the Bengalis.
All pictures showed dead bodies without any bullet wounds lining up a canal or river or muddy ground. Conditions consistent with hypothermia or drowning deaths as a result of flooding. But people did not realize that and believed the alleged pictures of “Bengali genocide”.
By October 1971 armed rebellion was nearly crushed and banished to Northern forests.
Looking at the situation India intervened.
In November 1971 air raids started and on 3rd of December 1971 Indian army alongside Bengali armed rebels, launched a total military intervention.
By that time Yehya had gone docile and Bhutto had the political dominance. No interest or support was shown by government of west Pakistan under Bhutto for supporting troops fighting a war in east Pakistan. Instead Bhutto was busy sacking Generals.
By 16th of December just 13 days later ,General Niazi the commander of Pakistan army in east Pakistan realised it’s a lost cause and they are on their own. He made a deal with Indian army chief for ending the war siting very large loss of civilian lives and political resolution expected.For Pakistan army it was an all consuming war they had been fighting since March.
Pakistan army surrendered as exit strategy and left east Pakistan.
A week later on 24th of December 1971 Yehya Khan officially resigned and transferred powers to Bhutto.
Zulfiqar Bhutto held a press conference on 24th December and while condemning Pakistan army, also asked them to stay in East Pakistan while he thinks of political solution, something he had been saying since 1967.
Sheikh mujeeb was told about Surrender of Pakistan army and Bangladesh becoming a new country. He offered to go on radio and TV, address Bangladeshi people and stop total separation of East Pakistan . Bhutto disagreed. Mujeeb insisted as he still hoped to rule both sides for being majority vote winner in the election. Something Bhutto didn’t want to happen.
In January 1972 Bhutto made some kind of deal with India, details of which are unknown to this date.
Under the deal Sheikh Mujeeb was released from Mianwali prison. Sent to Delhi on special plane where he delivered his first victory speech shouting “Joy Bangla , Joy Hind”.
He then went to Dhaka and under guard of Indian army , was installed as the head of state of new country Bangladesh.
The unfinished disaster relief operation after November 1970 Bhola cyclone came back to bite Bangladesh, compounded by lack of interest from India, the country had severest food shortage resulting a famine lasting two years and killing millions.
At the same time the Mukti Bahini armed to fight Pakistan army, refused to lay down weapons and kept killing any resident of new Bangladesh whom they suspected had opposed Bangladesh freedom or in any way had links or sympathy for west Pakistan.
The most horrific tortures were committed by the armed and unruly teenagers who knew no rules of engagement, human rights or Geneva convention. Dhaka stadium held daily torture gamed in which people picked up by Mukti Bahini were slowly and brutally killed in front of cheering crowds.
Political grudge between Zia ur Rehman and Sheikh Mujeeb remained an underlying issue. Sheikh Mujeeb generally called father of Nation but Zia ur Rehman still being the man who actually announced freedom and started armed rebellion.
In June 1974 Bhutto went on a state visit to Bangladesh. Mujeeb and Bhutto hugged each other as old friends . Both seemingly happy to have a separate country of their own to rule.
On 15th August 1975 Sheikh Mujeeb and most of his family were killed by armed men, suspected to be rebellious army soldiers under instructions of Zia Ur Rehman.
Bangladesh fell into total chaos after Mujeeb Assassination. In 1977 Zia Ur Rehman took power and started restoring order. In 1981 he allowed the return of exiled daughter of Sheikh Mujeeb, Sheikh Hasena.
The same year President Zia Ur Rehman was assassinated under dubious circumstances.
Zulfiqar Bhutto was hanged in April 1979 after General Zia’s military coup . Retired General Yehya Khan Died same year as Zia ur Rehman, in August 1981 , Rawalpindi. The ruler of India in 1971 who conspired to break Pakistan and arranged Indian military attack on Pakistan, Indra Gandhi also got assassinated by her own bodyguards in October1984.
Yehya khan became the only ruler involved in the east Pakistan to Bangladesh story who died a natural death.
During soviet Afghan war Pakistani secret services got the opportunity of giving Soviets a taste of their own medicine and the opportunity was availed.

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The Jewish roots of the Saudi Royal Family

Source: Anonymous

Sauds  have been around for much longer. Prior to Ibn Saud, this family ruled the Nejd and often came into conflict with the Ottoman Empire and the Rashidis. The House of Saud is also linked with Wahhabism through the marriage of the son of Muhammad ibn Saud with the daughter of Muhammad ibn Abd al Wahhab in 1744.
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